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You can also free up your calculator memory by storing notes, programs, etc on your PC. Also available: Calc - Calc cables. The games Games rated from 5 down to 1 star and then arranged alphabetically. Links to author will either take you to their site or start an email to them. Apologies to authors who are not credited correctly - please let me know!

The front page of this site for Casio graphic calculator users. Order one of our new link cables and checkout the used calculator market. Screen Logos: Free logos and screensavers to personalise your calculator. Guests who require long stay, we can help in this regard. Once you have chosen the right option for you, we will take care of making all the necessary reservations.? We can help you to book tickets for trains, or buses. If you need to find a taxi, have something delivered to your place of lodging, or make reservations for restaurant- we will make it for you!

We have a portable Wi-Fi in our arsenal of services. The Internet is an irreplaceable assistant in the modern world. You need permanent internet access! Welcome to Cultural Kiev We are a young company in the tourism market, so it is important for us to ensure high quality and professionalism for our customers. The company offers the services: Our way is different from other companies because we always work thinking of you, of your needs, but above all, of your expectations.

Our service is characterized by flexibility and creativity in the design of routes, for this we are diligent about the choice of persons who participate in your accompanying. Our company seeks to promote Kiev as a popular tourist destination, offering comprehensive and interesting solutions to meet the needs of our customers, striving to exceed their expectations in terms of quality, responsibility, equity and sustainable development.

Seven wonders of Kiev Kiev is the heart of Ukraine. There are a lot of ancient houses, priceless monuments of culture, famous churches, beautiful parks and squares, wonderful places worth visiting. Quite recently Ukrainians and guests of the city chose seven most amazing places in Kyiv and named them miracles. Meet in Hotel Our guide will come to your hotel lobby area or any other indicated address.

You will see: Vladimir Cathedral, the Golden Gate, St. Sophia Cathedral, St. We suggest start our trip with the most visited tourist attraction of the capital. Vladimir Cathedral is the main temple of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, one of the most beautiful monuments of neo-Byzantine architecture, not only in the capital, but through out Ukraine. Andreevsky Descent is the oldest street in Kiev.

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The street was named in honor of St. There is a legend, earlier on the place of the Dnieper was the sea, when the apostle Andrew came and installed a cross on a hill, the sea obeyed, and the water left. Sophia Cathedral is the pearl of the capital. Sophia Cathedral is a fount of frescoes and mosaics of the 11th century. The Golden Gate is an architectural monument of the defensive architecture of Kiev Rus, since the reign of Yaroslav the Wise.

The Golden Gate performed not only a defensive function, but also was the central entrance to Kiev. This status was preserved for it until the 18th century. One of the masterpieces of the Ukrainian Baroque is the cathedral, the refectory and the complex of buildings of the Vydubitsky SaintMichael Monastery. Nowadays there are five churches in the area of the monastery. This is a surprisingly picturesque place where believers will be able to find unique places for inspiration and perfect location to pray. This shrine stands in the third place for the Orthodox world after Jerusalem and the holy Mount Athos.

If you are hungry during the tour we know the unique, pleasant and comfortable places in Kiev where you can satisfy your taste and get aesthetic pleasure. If you are interested in a separate object from the proposed tour, we will be happy to make an excursion according to your wish.

Contact us for further details. Our guide is your personal assistant, with excellent knowledge of the city. He ready to accompany you in all the movements and help in matters. You will not only get acquainted with the city in a short time, but also make the best use of your time. Meet Hotel Our guide will come to your hotel lobby area or any other indicated address.

Our guide will tell you in detail about what can be seen in Kiev, what excursions we can offer focusing on Your interests, how to get to the best places in Kiev, making up your individual itinerary We will take you back to your hotel or any other place you would prefer at the end of the tour. Talk about mysticism in this city — easy, the city has long been famous for legends about evil spirit. Even now, in present days, many believe that witches are still flocking to the Bald Mountain on the Sabbath The main office Glavpochtamt located at the place, where you can see the ghost, and on the most mystical street Andreevsky Descent, you can find the entrance to the another world.

Choosing this tour we suggest you wear comfortable clothes and bring an open and curious mind. Our guide will give you flashlight , tea in a thermos, cookies and all other necessary things ;. Kiev Botanical Garden is one of the most visited sights of the city. It is easy to hide from the hustle and bustle under the can opy of trees, listen to the singing of birds, enjoy the surrounding view. Each season has its own melody. The spring symphony begins with the flowering of the first spring snow drops and continues with the riot of lilac and beautiful magnolias. Summer nakturn will play with the fragrance of roses, jasmine and linden.

Autumn blues from the first notes will surprise with the brightness of colors, variety of shapes and flowering of charming dahlias and chrysanthemums. Winter sketcheswill give a fairy tale with fir trees and squirrels. The Botanical Garden works at any time of year, in the green houses the flowering of plants continues. Being in this place, it seems that you are somewhere far away, on a small island surrounded by birds of paradise and fluttering tropical butterflies. Come, and look at this miracle with your own eyes!

Go on an excursion we offer, accompanied by a photographer, to leave your walk in memory forever. The history of this place is extremely interesting. By sources, history begins In the X century, when the Greek monks led by the first Kyiv Metropolitan, were founded a monastery on this pictures queslopes. A lot has happened to this famous landmark over the time of its history and you will see what remains. The place has not lost its charming natural beauty. Now this place has been returned to the people and primarily is an amazing place of beauty! A large-scale natural complex, clean air, interesting infrastructure and entertainment for every taste, fountains and ponds, animals and birds, this place is definitely worth seeing and will leave warm memories in your heart even with its previous history.

Impressions about Kiev are completely different at day and evening. Especially in the summer evenings the city looks romantic and thoughtful, everything around it takes on different colors.

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All this provides for long walks around the city. You will be charmed by embankments, illuminated bridges and streets of evening Kiev. We invite you to have an interesting and fun time in the evening Kiev. You can fulfill this dream, right now! Give yourself and your family a little fairy tale, special impressions that you will never forget! Write to us and we will be happy to organize for you this unforgettable adventure!

Special sources of financing, innovative infrastructure, ideal conditions for life — all this was a reality until the morning of April 26, And they are one of the most unusual extreme destinations in the world. Our prices are not the lowest in the industry because we hire the very best. Have an introductory library orientation quiz game to get students interested and engaged with their new library. You may choose the percentage of how much you would like the paper to be edited.

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You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. We like to turn off the "dP" parameter and prefer to touch the Program Change sensor and use the two side keys to scroll through patches. We also like to set the "Ho" parameter to "LE" and the "Oc" parameter to "ln".

This allows you to play two notes and change the interval then, while blowing, lock in the interval and play it in parallel. This is great fun! You can do this in real time while playing. This technique was used a bit in the EWIs soundbank demo here. It's even more fun when you have an EWIs patch that has the two oscillators already set to an interval, then you add the second note and you can create four note chords.

The possibilities are staggering just using the EWIs internal synth in this way. Does anyone have any suggestions? If you are getting the "SysX data is missing bytes" error, try uploading the factory presets. The latest OS can be downloaded from Akai's website as well. After that, it should be OK. The available transpose options skip from "b" to "Db".

How do I transpose to "C"? The EWIs is a "C" or "concert pitched" instrument by default. Thus there is no reason to "transpose" it to "C" or "Concert Pitch". This is why there is no selection to transpose it to C. It is supposed to skip from "b" to "Db". My Mac running OSX cannot read a.

Any suggestions? The problem so well known it's in the manual for UniQuest! If I touch the glide strip the time either takes forever to get from one note to another or else I don't get portamento and the patch cuts in and out randomly. Any thoughts? Samplers and sample based synths Romplers are all different in how they respond to portamento time parameter MIDI controller 5. Try editing the offending patch and setting the Portamento Type parameter to "Rate". If there is a Portamento Start parameter set that to "Pitch". There should be a Portamento Switch parameter that you can set to "off".

I have seen pictures of the EWIs in other colors. Are they available in different colors? Is there a way to make my EWIs look cooler? They are not available in the USA. There is no difference in the two units- only the color is different. Alternatively, Eddie Davis has come up with a clever solution with some smart looking EWIs decals that he sells which can dramatically transform the look of the EWIs. If you bite, the pitch goes in a positive direction. When you release, the bend goes in a negative direction.

If at any point along the way you hold the bite at a certain level, the pitchbend data will always return to the zero point. For this reason, we sometimes refer to this type of EWI bite sensor as a "wiggle sensor". Think of it as trying to move a flexible stick of rubber through honey.

Move it, and the other end lags behind a bit. Wherever you stop, the stick will eventually straighten be at 0 pitchbend. So it is not a linear sensor that tracks your bite directly. All in all, it works well and is very musical. It provides that "EWI sound" when you play it, which is quite desirable. Since it is self-centering it also means the player does not have to worry about playing out of tune. On the other hand, it does not allow for the "bend and hold" effect like you can get on a WX wind controller or Synthophone.

To do that on the EWI, you use you right hand thumb bend sensors. So these models offer the user the choice of either the traditional auto-centering bite sensing or bite-and-hold bite sensing.

If anyone else has found others, please let us know and we will add it to this section. In any case, you would need properly programmed wind controller patches in the synth to allow for full expression. Patchman Music sells many wind controller soundbanks here. There are two off-the-shelf solutions for this: There are also some DIY threads on the web for doing a Raspberry Pi based device for this but it is unclear if they work. Search the web and see if anyone has a working solution ready to go; or, if you are wizardly enough, attempt it yourself.

Here is a link to get you started. Although in principle they could work but they likely do not support USB-MIDI , usually the transmitter of these systems is not battery powered. They are very expensive too. This device could be built from cheap, existing components. The only problem is that the market is very small remember, only a fraction of the small group of EWI-USB buyers would buy this , so it is likely not economical to produce it. If you don't see the USB Audio port here, then you need to add a new route. It will add a new routing check if the option Automatically attach Inputs to Outputs during selection is checked.

Mac users can use a similar type utility to make the connection such as Midi Patchbay. Better results were attained with a USB Midisport 2x2. This is set in Aria's Preferences screen. I have two laptop computers. Both are standard issue machines with ordinary processors and sound cards. On both machines I experienced an amount of latency time delay between playing notes and hearing them that made the instrument unplayable. I have since gotten the instrument to work with very little latency on both machines by following these steps Go to www.

As of June , the latest version is 2. Click on Run. A Setup Wizard comes up. Follow the instructions. A small piece of software is installed on your computer.

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You won't need to run it or think about it again. The order of these previous two steps is important. Select Tools on the menu and then Preferences. USB Audio Device in. Under Output Devices, select nothing. The remaining settings are set automatically as follows:. Audio Device API: Audio Device: Stereo Pair: Click OK. Select an instrument. How do I contact Akai? Visit the official Akai website at http: I have very dry hands and sometimes the EWI's touch sensors don't respond right. Any tips? Newer models have greatly improved this.

If you have tried adjusting the Key Sensitivity knob on the EWI and still have trouble with the sensors not sensing your fingers you might try a tiny bit of hand lotion with a high Glycerin count on the fingertips. Look at the ingredients and notice if Glycerin is the first one listed. Nyle Steiner recommends rubbing a couple of drops of glycerin available at most drug stores into the fingertips.

We have also used a little ChapStick on the fingertips with great success. Be careful not to put too much on.

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You don't want to have the lotion building up on the keys. If this happens, wipe the keys clean. When I use my EWI to control sounds on my external MIDI synth or softsynth the external synth locks up, plays slowly, and doesn't play smoothly or predictably. The EWI factory default settings were unwisely chosen by Akai yes, we have notified Akai of this many times to no avail. So do this There is a also a parameter on the EWI that adjusts the breath sensor's "rate of change". Try a setting of You can also adjust the rate of change parameters for the other sensors on the EWI and we suggest you adjust them as well.

The full EWI user guide manual can be downloaded from the www. How can I turn that off? Check the manual of your MIDI synth to see if this is possible. The display should show "dP". Push the top side key to select the "Ot" parameter. If there is a dot between these two letters in the display then push the TRANS button to turn off the dot. Contact Patchman Music for details. This sets the threshold point where the note is sent from the WX5. This adjusts how hard you have to blow to get to full level.

These trimmers are located under small rubber plugs. Remove these plugs to adjust then be sure to replace them when done to keep water out of the sensitive electronics. In adjusting these trimmers, you use a small flat head screwdriver. The internal trimmers are made of plastic.

They turn only about degrees. They do not turn all the way around. Use great care not to turn them past the point where they stop. If you strip them out or break them, the repair can be expensive. Note that these two trimmers interact so you will certainly have to go back and forth between them making small adjustments to each a few times to get it feeling just right. Note that the right most LED on the top of the WX5 lights up when the zero point is crossed and a note is being sent. This adjustment is very sensitive so do it slowly.

When everything is set right, the WX should feel comfortable and natural to play just like on an acoustic reed instrument. Blowing notes and tonguing should be natural and not difficult. When adjusting the reed lip sensor, it helps to have a tuner or a MIDI monitor such as the bend display in the VLm nearby to see where the bend sensor is at. Assuming you have "Tight Lip Mode" selected with the WX5 DIP switches, you essentially want to set the MIDI pitchbend data to be hovering around the middle point 0 when you are using a normal amount of bite on the reed. If it is set right, then you will be able to loosen your bite to bend down, and tighten your bite to bend up.

In order for the bite sensor to work at all on the Yamaha WX series wind controllers, the little bite sensor cantilever rod inside the mouthpiece must be lightly touching the reed at all times in order to sense its position. Getting it right can be quite difficult. If your WX needs professional attention, Patchman Music does wind controller repairs.

Put the mouthpiece in your mouth and apply a comfortable amount of pressure on the reed, that is, the normal amount of pressure you would use to play a centered pitch. You should now be able to bend up or down. This shows you pitchbend relative to the center on-pitch vertical mark. Tighten and loosen your bite on the reed and you should see this bar graph move from left to right. When properly set, it should hover mostly around the middle point a single line.

If the lip adjustment is way off, you may not see much, but likely you can see some change as you change your bite pressure. These do interact with each other and sometimes it takes a few adjustments on each to get it all properly set up. With a comfortable bite pressure, gently turn it the LIP ZERO adjustment right or left until you see the pitch bar graph center on the on-pitch vertical mark. Do not force this adjustment- stop when you feel the resistance.

These trimmers are only made of plastic and can break or strip if turned beyond their limits. Bending notes and creating vibrato should be natural and not difficult to do. Note that these trimmers are not screws. They are delicate electronic trimmers that turn only about halfway. Do not force them or they can break resulting in a costly repair. They are also very sensitive to slight movement- so getting them set just right can be tricky.

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Lip Zero always needs to be centered. Fine tuning of pitch should be done on the receiving synth s. See elsewhere in this FAQ for an explanation. Sometimes the module connected to my WX wind controller abruptly goes out of tune. It's almost as if one of the side semi tone keys is stuck- which is not the case. Switching the unit off for a few seconds and then on again seems to cure the problem temporarily. It is important to understand how the WX series bites sensor works and is interacting with a connected sound module. First, the problem is almost certainly not because of the MIDI sound module.

Here is likely what is happening. Assuming the WX is in Tight Lip mode and the reed is not in your mouth, the initial pitchbend bite sensor position has not yet been sent to the connected sound module. Pitchbend data is only sent when the bite sensor or thumb bend sensor is actually moved. At this point pitchbend data is generated and sent to the sound module. This would be normal. As you put the mouthpiece into your mouth and apply the nominal bite pressure you should see that the pitchbend now is more centered and fluctuates around the "zero point" as you vary your bite on the reed.

If not, then you need to calibrate the lip sensor as described elsewhere in this Wind Controller FAQ. Also note that this can happen if the WX5 has the recorder mouthpiece on it and the LIP ZERO is not centered properly and you accidentally move the recorder mouthpiece while playing. What does this mean?

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Note that you can bend upwards or downwards in Tight Lip mode. Tight Lip Mode is most like an acoustic instrument. Tight Lip mode is strongly recommended as it allows for maximum expression when bending and doing vibrato with the WX reed. Loose Lip Mode means that the pitch is "in tune" only when no pressure is applied to the reed. Applying pressure to the reed bends the pitch upwards. Note that you can only bend upwards in Loose Lip mode. It is important to calibrate the WX properly as described elsewhere in this FAQ for the various modes to respond correctly and to play in tune.

I have seen pictures of the WX5 in other colors. Is there a way to make my WX5 look cooler? When the WX5 was first released there was a very limited number of horns made in a blue marble color and a white pearl color. These models were made in very small numbers and are no longer available. WX5 player Eddie Davis has come up with a clever solution with some smart looking WX5 decals that he sells which can dramatically transform the look of the WX5. Yes, Yamaha makes a case specifically designed for the Yamaha WX5. In the USA, it is available here.

Additional info on this Yamaha WX5 hard case is here. The Yamaha BC series breath controllers can be adjusted for optimum results. Very important: First, make sure you have selected a patch on your synth that was properly programmed to respond to breath controller data. If you don't have a patch specifically designed to respond to the breath controller, the breath controller will likely have little or no effect on the patch. The BC1 has an internal trim pot that is adjusted with a small screwdriver. Adjust this trimmer so that you get a comfortable, full response from your breath expression while holding a note.

You will probably want to set this trimmer to the point just below where the sound begins to increase dramatically. The BC2 and BC3 have two adjustment knobs. Temporarily set the GAIN knob to the middle setting, and hold a note on the keyboard. Now adjust the GAIN knob so that you get a comfortable, full response from your breath expression. Note that these are not screws.

They are also very sensitive to slight movement- so getting them just right can be tricky. When the breath controller is adjusted right and the receiving synth patch has been programmed right to respond to the breath controller's signal, playing it should feel comfortable and natural. The Yamaha VLm is a perfect mate for the Yamaha breath controller as it has sounds set up to work with a breath controller as well as a meter in the display that shows the breath level.

Unfortunately it is now out of production. No replacement has been announced. On my WX11, what are those two adjustment pots for that are covered by the rubber plugs? On the WX11, there are two adjustment pots under the two rubber plugs located just below the mouthpiece.

See page 7 of the WX11 manual for details on these features. How do I remove a WX mouthpiece? Before proceeding, be aware that inside the mouthpiece is a thin metal lever, one end of which normally rides on the reed. You can see this end through the mouthpiece tip opening. The lever extends back through a rubber shield to the actual lip pressure sensor. This metal lever is all too easily damaged when the mouthpiece is off- so proceed with extreme caution. First of all, don't try to twist it!

The mouthpieces on a WX7, WX11, and WX5 can be removed by holding the body of the instrument firmly with one hand, the mouthpiece with the other, and pulling them straight apart slowly and firmly. Do not twist. I have found that some hot water run over the end of the mouthpiece can help loosen it up. But be very careful not to get the water inside the horn!! Hold the horn upside down when running water over the mouthpiece. A thin coating of the highly recommended Yamaha Recorder Cream or Silcon7 lubricant available here on the rubber parts will help make the next removal a LOT smoother.

These products also help preserve the rubber parts reducing dry out which can cause the rubber to crack- at which point it would need to be replaced- if you can find the parts! Moral- keep these parts lubricated. If you have the mouthpiece off, it is a good idea to make sure there is no gunk in the openings.

That gunk can clog the openings to the breath pressure sensor and to the breath exhaust tube that leads down through the instrument. The best prevention is to wash your mouth out with water before you play, as with any wind instrument. These are two very different things and it is a little confusing by looking at the front panel of the VLm. The display will change. How do I access the other sounds in the other bank? Changing banks on the VLm is very easy. Pr1, Pr2, Int, etc.. The Banks in the VLm are numbered as follows:. Note that the bank change won't take effect until you do a program change.

Additional instructions and illustrations are available in the WX5 User Manual on pages To switch to Pr1 Bank , hold down the program change button the one on the back of the WX5 that is furthest from the mouthpiece and the low C key again, the one that is furthest from the mouthpiece at the same time, and while holding those two keys down, press the E key the one on which your right middle finger normally rests. Then release everything and use the program change key to select a patch, and that patch will be from bank 0. To select Pr2 Bank , press the B key instead of the E key.

Look at the diagram on page 16 of the manual to see why the E and B keys correspond to 0 and 1. Can the Yamaha MFC10 transpose? If you wish to transpose "on the fly", you might look into a MIDI transpose pedal such as from Midi Solutions or try to find an out of production Anatek Pocket Transpose box. If you are using a VLm, note that you can transpose individual patches on this synth and easily save them to the Int bank.

The out of production MFC1 does not. Sometimes used MFC2 pedals are available here.

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You have to make a sequence of multiple messages for all switches necessary to press to change transpose setting. To program the built-in pedal do the following on the MFC Press button 1 for the built-in pedal 3. Press FC edit again to move to the next parameter. Press the FC Edit button again 6. Press the FC Edit button again 8. Now when you press the pedal, you will get a growl sound. You can attach other pedals to the back of the MFC10 and program them in the same way. Just change step 2 to the pedal that you want to control. Is there a way to change patches and volumes without using my hands on both tone generators using a MIDI foot pedal?

You can then line up your patches in your synth modules to do your various layers and non-layers. Program change 1 might be sax only on module 1 Module 2 has a silent patch in that location , Program change 2 might be trumpet only on module 2 Module 1 has a silent patch in that location , Program change 3 might be trumpet on module 1 AND sax on module 2, etc Actually you could bypass the MFC10 and possibly use the program change feature built in to many wind controllers using this method of patch arrangement.

The Midi Mouse pedal is also excellent. This will also mess up the balance of any layered sounds in a synth for the same reason. Whereas with MIDI Expression, you can generally program how much you want a synth to respond to that controller. In other words, if you send MIDI Volume, you are always controlling the synth from no sound to full sound which is not always preferable. Plus you cannot then use MIDI Volume to adjust the overall volume or mix of the synth since as soon as you send volume data from your wind controller, the synth jumps to that value.

Also, a synth's response to MIDI Volume very often cannot be turned off on a synth which can be very undesirable as well. For controlling volume in the analog domain, you can use audio foot pedals- whereas you run the audio signal into the pedal and the pedal out to your amp. If you have multiple synths, you could run each synth into its own volume pedal for individual control. Sometimes they are available here.

I am a flute player. How difficult is it to adapt to the wind controller? What are the options for a Flute Player? While flute and sax both share a Boehm fingering system, there are some differences that may or may not be an issue to a flutist. Over the years, the consensus seems to be that the WX5 flute fingering is not all that useful and simply using one of the sax fingerings is far better for flute players. Additional info on this can be found elsewhere in this FAQ. You can use your WX5 directly with any number of synths and soft synths but the degree and quality of control that you will get will vary dramatically depending on the programmability and capabilities of the receiving synth and whether you have patches loaded in them that have been designed to be played with a wind controller.

Many soundcards simply do not have the capabilities to work well with a wind controller. One sound card that we have enjoyed using, though it is now out of production, is the Korg Oasys PCI card. Since a wind controller transmits a lot of MIDI data from its sensors, some sound cards and softsynths can have trouble keeping up.

Also latency response time can be a big issue with softsynths- especially considering the amount of MIDI data that is sent from a wind controller. Latency is critical in a real time situation like playing a wind controller. To be fair, even some hardware synths have a significant amount of latency. See elsewhere in this FAQ for info on programming a synth for use with a wind controller. There certainly are many people using softsynths with laptops- notably Michael Brecker- and now even the iPad can be used with certain apps and appropriate wind controller patches.

The majority of wind controller players using hardware synths such as the highly recommended Yamaha VLm or Yamaha Motif-Rack XS with their wind controllers but over the years many players have gravitated to soft synths running on their desktop or laptop computers. It is an excellent choice sound module for many wind controller players since it is small, reliable, has great sounds, and has a visual metering system in the display which helps with setting up the wind controller.

It was designed specifically for use with a wind controller and thus the sounds are extremely responsive to a wind controller. It also has several utilities that greatly help in setting up and adjusting a connected wind controller. There is also a MIDI connector on it for connection with other wind controllers. In addition to receiving the sensor data from the WX, this connector also provides power to the WX so batteries are no longer needed. Indeed there are other sound modules that also work well that cost less than a VLm.

Which one is better? Neither is "better" than the other. As far as sound goes, there are numerous demos of these modules being played with a wind controller at the Patchman Music website. The XV audio demo is here. These two modules use completely different types of synthesis to generate their sound. The Yamaha VLm uses a very special type called physical modeling. The benefits of physical modeling are explained elsewhere in this FAQ. The VLm is strictly a lead instrument, that is, it can only play one note of polyphony due to the highly computational nature of this type of synthesis.

No samples are used in the VL. Instead, the sound is generated "from scratch" within its computer model of an actual acoustic instrument. The sound is generated and responds interactively in real time based on the input you are sending it from your wind controller. You cannot create layers of sounds or chords within a single VLm several VLm units can be layered though but its one note of polyphony produces more realistic legatos and responds in amazing ways based on HOW you are playing. Because of this real time interaction it does things a sample based synth simply cannot do.

Samples are, of course, actual recordings of real instruments so the general sound is quite realistic although not as flexible as the VL which reacts and changes its sound based on your playing. You can also crack notes on the trumpets and do real "lip shakes" on the VL. The samples in the XV are "pre-recorded" and cannot change the way a physical model can. So the sounds in the XV do not respond quite as "acoustically" as the VL can. The best thing to do is to listen to the audio demos available on the internet and compare the sound for yourself and decide which types of sounds YOUR ears prefer and also consider your needs and what you are trying to do with your wind controller.

Most people that play wind controllers tend to have one of each of these and they layer them for a sound that is greater than the sum of the parts. Real aural magic can happen when two different types of synthesis are layered. The possibilities are endless. The VLm also has several meters in the LCD to help show the input activity and this also helps in setting up a wind controller.

Overall, both modules work extremely well assuming you have proper wind controller patches loaded in them. They are both highly recommended. Listen to the audio demos at Patchman Music and compare for yourself. Some of the main differences are detailed here. Importantly, they both respond very fast to wind controller data and have a very smooth legato. Please note that the older S4 model non-PLUS model does not have the super smooth legato capabilities of the three newer models. It isn't capable of triggering new legato notes at the sample loop point but it still responds quickly and sounds good.

The biggest drawback with these units is that their filter is not terribly steep and can tend to sound thin. All of the Yamaha VL series synths are physical modeling type synths. No samples or preset waveforms are used in these synths. Their sound is derived from complex mathematical models of real instruments. These models are computed in real time in the VL synth and thus interact with the player unlike any other synth.

The VLm was probably the most popular model since it had a much lower price compared to the previous VL models. The VL1 keyboard, and VL1-m module version of VL1 keyboard use Physical Modeling synthesis which simulates actual acoustic interactions between a sound generator reed, bow, trumpet-type mouthpiece and a resonator pipe, string. It does the computations for this in real time- an amazing accomplishment! The VL is not a sample player. It has 2-voice polyphony and can layer two different sounds at once, 5-band parametric eq, several amplifier simulators, distortion settings, reverbs, delays, and flanger.

The virtual controllers assignable to physical controllers like breath pressure, foot pedal, pitchbend include growl, scream, distortion, and a whole bunch of others. It holds voices patches in 8 banks, storable to DOS-compatible 3. So what's so special about the Yamaha VLm? What's the difference between samplers and physical modeling type synthesis? Samples can easily always sound better than a synthesized sound in a single dimension. But sounds have another dimension for most of us wind controller players- that is, they need to respond and be played and adapt to the musical demand.

Samples are merely a snippet of a real recording so I would expect them to sound as good as any CD recording of that instrument playing. Essentially, that's all samples are anyway- they are recordings. The problem with sample playback synthesis becomes apparent when you try to manipulate the sample and play it expressively or differently than how it was originally recorded.

You can run into insurmountable problems once you try to do expressive things that are not already recorded into the samples. A sampler's filters and layers can only go so far in manipulating a sound. When you start trying really expressive things with samples you end up hitting the wall of limitations- at least with current technology. For example, let's say you want to crescendo a simple flute sound from ppp to fff. OK, you need some samples of a flute at several different levels. A soft flute sounds far different than a loud flute that is blown hard. So you sample them. You create 50 layers of flute samples playing middle C.

You can even crossfade them so that different samples come in and out as you blow. But along that slope you either have to hard switch between the samples or crossfade between them. If you hard switch between them, that sounds completely unnatural as you hear the switch take place.